- Taiwan Regulation on Copper
- Circuit Design
Although the body needs adequate amount of copper to properly function, too much copper can do permanent damage. Recent studies have shown that copper toxicity may contribute to cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (Brewer, 2009). While other research claim that excess copper, deficient zinc might as well as cause unbalanced metabolism inside human beings (Brewer, 2012; Nolan, 2003). By just inhaling copper dust may also cause irritation to the mouth, nose, eyes, and headaches in some cases.
Exposure Source or Route
There are basically two types of copper: organic copper and inorganic copper. Organic copper is mostly consumed by natural food, and is able to be processed in the liver; on the other hand, inorganic copper mostly occurs to all in copper-made utensils, plumbing, and other household facilities. Inorganic copper is potentially toxic due to its high possibility of penetrating the blood/brain barrier (Brewer, 2015).
Taiwan Regulation on Copper in Chinese Medicine
Although our government has liberated the regulation of copper for the past recent years, there is still a set of limit that the net concentration of all heavy metals in Chinese Medicine should not surpass 30 ppm. The reason for this change is that copper ion is an essential element to many plants and animals. Thus, it will be difficult to determine whether the copper within the subject is natural or adulterated. The previous regulation of copper concentration is 20 ppm in 8 types of Chinese Medicine (Hsu, Chen, Lo, & Lin, 2007).
The purpose of this circuit is to utilize the CueR protein inside the bacteria to form a Cu2+-CueR dimer. The dimer will then regulate the promoter upper stream, thus, generating GFP protein as a reporter protein.
CueR is a constant protein that can regulate the CopA gene. When the protein combines with copper ions, the then formed dimer will induce the CopA promoter. Hence, we made use of this and created a regulated reporter gene. Whenever there is copper ions, our bacteria will express a green fluorescent characteristic.
Brewer, G. J. (2009). The risks of copper toxicity contributing to cognitive decline in the aging population and to Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Coll Nutr., 28(3), 238-242.
Brewer, G. J. (2012). Copper excess, zinc deficiency, and cognition loss in Alzheimer's disease. Biofactors, 38(107-113).
Brewer, G. J. (2015). Copper-2 ingestion, plus increased meat eating, leading to increased Cooper absorption, are major factors behind the current epidemic of Alzheimer's Disease. Nutrients, 7, 10053-10064.
Hsu, Y.-H., Chen, Y.-H., Lo, C.-F., & Lin, J.-H. (2007). Survey on Heavy metals in Raw Material of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ann. Rept. BFDA Taiwan ROC, 25, 127-139.
Nolan, K. (2003). Copper Toxicity Syndrome. J. Orthomol. Psychiatry, 12, 270-282.