Team:NCTU Formosa/Further Considerations

Further Considerations

Current pest control methods have its pros and cons.(Table 1) In the further consideration, we compared two other pesticides with Pantide. By comparing the three pesticides, we can have a better understanding of modern agriculture and the potential value of practical application of Pantide.

  • Pantide
  • Pantide is a collection of bioinsecticide that derives its toxicity from spider venoms. The short spider venoms' peptides can be expressed by E. coli and sprinkled into the farmland. There are four promising features—eco-friendly, safe, biodegradable, and species specific. It is safe to mammal because PANTIDE performs its toxicity in specific insect’s nervous system. Moreover, different kinds of PANTIDE targets different kinds of insect families including Lepidopterans, Dipterans, Coleopterans, and Orthopterans.

  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a biological pesticide and indigenous to many environments. Bt produces parasporal crystal proteins that form lytic pores in the intestinal epithelial cell in the target organism. [1] The toxic protein does not kill creatures other than targeted insects because of the specificity and mechanism of action of bacteria. It is now widely used for controlling the pathogenic and agricultural pest. However, Bt-resistant insects have been discovered since the 1980s.

  • Imidacloprid
  • Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide. It blocks the receptor of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter, causing acetylcholine accumulation. Neonicotinoid insecticides are a group of chemical pesticides most widely used for pest control. Imidacloprid is lethal to sucking insects. As a result, it is the main factor that causes colony collapse disorder (CCD) of bees. [2] Also, the direction consumption of an imidacloprid-dressed seed may lead to mortality of vertebrate including birds and mammals. For the environment, imidacloprid along with other neonicotinoid pesticides remain in the water and soil and can be absorbed by the plants, which is likely to accumulate in the food chain. [3]


    • E. Schnepf, N. Crickmore, J. Van Rie, D. Lereclus, J. Baum, J. Feitelson, D.R. zeigler, and D.H. Dean, “Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp.775-806, 1998
    • David Gibbons, Christy Morrissey, and Pierre Mineau, “A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife,” Environ Sci Pollut Res, Vol.22, pp.103-118, 2014
    • Dave Goulson, “An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol.50, pp.997-987, 2013