DNA information storage is a promising direction of synthetic biology, there were some scientists and iGEM teams that had opened the way for us. One was CUHK’s project in 2010. The other was a paper published on Nature in 2013. Our DNA information storage system has great features. We do the compatibility, fault tolerance, encryption, usage mode of the system best. Besides, we make DNA editing come true, through CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Various file formats supported
Our software supports the transforming of all formats of files, including jpg, pdf, mp3, etc. So users can store all kinds of computer files in DNA. On the other hand, we provide different formats of DNA sequences for users to download, including txt, fasta, SBOL. Users can easily use these different formats of files to do more things.
Fig.1. Various file formats supported.
Higher fault tolerance
Our system involves readings of length 200 bps shifted by 50 bps so as to ensure four-fold coverage of the sequences for we can always get the accurate information from the redundant sequence. Meanwhile, we add indexes to the sequence, which contains address code and check code. It will help us know the location of sequence in a file and examine whether the sequence goes wrong or not during the synthesizing, storing or sequencing progress. In short, due to the four-fold redundancy and even-odd check we design, we can easily get to know whether errors occur and inaccurate bases can be corrected by majority vote.
Fig.2. Fourfold redundancy and index to improve fault tolerance.
We use ISAAC64, an encryption algorithm, also a fast cryptographic random number generator, to ensure that the bases appearing in consequential DNA sequence are almost random. It can protect the privacy of users, besides, due to its operating principle; reduce the homopolymer and bio-function sequences.
For convenience, we have designed a web page that allows users to experience our software, through which users can upload any format file they want to encode or decode easily and quickly and download the DNA sequences files generated or the original files conveniently. After our test, now users can use it on any device and any platform including smartphones, iPads and computers.
Fig.3. Friendly interface of Bio101.
Fig.4. Conversion any file by Bio101 on different devices and platforms.
The huge improvement we did compared to the former projects, was that we made DNA editing come true. You can provide the demand of modifying, and Bio101 will tell you the content of sgRNA and new DNA fragment for CRISPR-Cas9 system, which can edit DNA substance.
Our project has its own features, we compared it with the two in Table1
Tab.1. The comparison of the similar projects.
And more details about features of Bio101 are shown as follows: